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Thursday, September 10, 2020

English Speaking Course :Day-9 Noun& Types of Nouns

English Speaking Course :Day-9
Noun& Types of Nouns
English Speaking Course :Day-1 Salutation Words in English
Types of Nouns

Nouns are an important part of speech in English, probably second only to verbs. It is difficult to say much without using a noun.

There are several different types of English nouns. It is often useful to recognize what type a noun is because different types sometimes have different rules. This helps you to use them correctly.

Common Nouns:

Most nouns are common nouns. Common nouns refer to people, places and things in general like chair or dog. Any noun that is not a name is a common noun.
Examples: teacher, car, music, danger, receipt
Have you seen my dog?
The books are on your desk.
...the pursuit of happiness.

Proper Nouns:

Names of people, places or organizations are proper nouns. Your name is a proper noun. London is a proper noun. United Nations is a proper noun.

Rule: Proper nouns always start with a capital letter.

Examples: Jane, Thailand, Sunday, James Bond, Einstein, Superman, Game of Thrones, Shakespeare
Let me introduce you to Mary.
The capital of Italy is Rome.
He is the chairman of the British Broadcasting Corporation.
I was born in November.

Note: Adjectives that we make from proper nouns also usually start with a capital letter, for example Shakespearian, Orwellian.

Concrete Nouns:

Concrete nouns are physical things that you can touch.

Examples: man, rice, head, car, furniture, mobile phone
How many stars are there in the universe?
Have you met James Bond?
Pour the water down the drain.

Abstract Nouns:

Abstract nouns are the opposite of concrete nouns. They are things that you cannot touch. Abstract nouns are ideas, concepts and feelings.

Examples: happiness, courage, danger, truth
He has great strength.
Who killed President Kennedy is a real mystery.
Sometimes it takes courage to tell the truth.
Their lives were full of sadness.

Countable Nouns:
(also called count nouns)

You can count countable nouns. Countable nouns have singular and plural forms.

Examples:  ball, boy, cat, person
I have only five dollars.
The Earth was formed 4.6 billion years ago.
There are lots of people but we don't have a car.

Uncountable Nouns:
(also called mass nouns)

You cannot count uncountable nouns. You need to use "measure words" to quantify them.

Rule: We never use uncountable nouns with the indefinite article (a/an). Uncountable nouns are always singular.

Examples: water, happiness, cheese
Have you got some money?
Air-conditioners use a lot of electricity.
Do you have any work for me to do?
Many Asians eat rice.

Collective Nouns:
A collective noun denotes a group of individuals.

Examples: class (group of students), pride (group of lions), crew (group of sailors)
Rule: Collective nouns can be treated as singular or plural. More about this at rules of subject-verb agreement with collective nouns.

His family live in different countries.
An average family consists of four people.
The new company is the result of a merger.
The board of directors will meet tomorrow.

Compound Nouns:

A compound noun is a noun that is made with two or more words. Most compound nouns are [noun + noun] or [adjective + noun]. Each compound noun acts as a single unit and can be modified by adjectives and other nouns.

Compound nouns have three different forms:

open or spaced - space between words (bus stop)
hyphenated - hyphen between words (mother-in-law)
closed or solid - no space or hyphen between words (football)
Examples: cat food, blackboard, breakfast, full moon, washing machine, software

Can we use the swimming pool?
They stop work at sunset.

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